Oral Surgery

Oral surgery is a domain of dentistry that encompasses all the dental procedures of surgical nature, ranging from simple tooth extraction to maxillofacial surgeries.

In other words, any procedure that requires artificially altering the dentition by performing surgery for teeth, gums, or jawbones, i.e., the mandibles.

It requires advanced skills and training to be able to perform dental surgery, and hence not all dentists can perform it.

Types of Oral Surgeries

Oral surgeries are procedures restricted to the inside of the buccal cavity and are classified under the following categories:

  1. Endodontics – Any oral surgery involving the dental pulp and the root of the tooth will fall under this speciality. Surgical procedures done under endodontics include root canal treatment, which is the treatment of choice for the removal of infection from a decayed tooth and restoration of its function. Processes involved in root canal treatment are-1. Pulpotomy – As the name indicates, pulpotomy is defined as the process of making an opening in the dental pulp chamber to let the pus and exudates drain. It is usually done as a pre-treatment to root canal, to make the tooth dry.
    2. Pulpectomy – This is done by making an opening and removing the contents of the pulp chamber manually.

    – Apicoectomy: It is the resection of the end of the root of the tooth. This is done when the root canal alone does not suffice to remove the disease. In this case, the root end is entered via gingiva, and the disease is removed from there.

  2. Prosthodontics- Dental prosthetics are the equipment or implants used either for cosmetic alteration or restorative function of the tooth. Dental prosthetics include:Crowns: It is an artificial covering made up of materials such as ceramic, porcelain, or metal. They are commonly placed over the molars and premolars to accommodate and shape the restorative material. It is also used as a protective barrier to prevent any further damage to the teeth.
    Veneers: These are also artificial coverings like crowns, but they are placed only on the front surface of the tooth.
    – Bridge: A bridge is the interconnection between two crowns and serves the purpose of compensating for the gap created due to missing teeth.
    – Implant: It is a surgical procedure that involves the placement of a prosthesis or implant in either the mandible or the maxilla, followed by the attachment of an artificial tooth 4-6 months later to the implant.
    Dentures: These are commonly referred to as false teeth and maybe a partial or complete set. A partial set is attached to the adjacent tooth by metallic or plastic grasps. In contrast, a complete set is placed by the support of the gingival/palatal surface and fixed by a strong, biocompatible adhesive.
  3. Orthodontics- It involves the correction of malpositioned teeth or jaws. It consists of the placement of implants and implant-supported prosthesis.
  4. Apicoectomy- It is a procedure that involves the removal of underlying bony structures. The following must be done as a part of apicoectomy:
  5. Exodontics- This is commonly and popularly known as tooth extraction or dental extraction. It involves the removal of a tooth from its socket or the alveolus.
  6. Oral and maxillofacial surgery- It involves the surgery of face, mouth, and jaws.

The most commonly and feasibly performed dental surgery is tooth extraction.

For more information regarding this treatment
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